4 min read

Understanding the 10/40 Window: Reaching the Unreached

Understanding the 10/40 Window: Reaching the Unreached

What Is the 10/40 Window?

"The 10/40 Window represents a rectangular area on the globe between 10 and 40 degrees north latitude. It encompasses North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It’s estimated that nearly two-thirds of the world’s population lives within this narrow window-including 90 percent of the poorest people in the world."1 This region encompasses parts of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, including countries such as India, China, Pakistan, Iran, and many others. It is known for its high concentration of people who have limited access to the Gospel and are predominantly unreached by Christian missionaries.

the 1040 window highlighted in blue on a world map


Why the 10/40 Window Matters:

1. Unreached People Groups:

The 10/40 Window is home to the majority of the world's least evangelized and unreached people groups. These groups have limited or no access to Christian resources, churches, or missionaries. They often live in areas with cultural, political, or religious barriers that hinder the spread of the Gospel. We're not talking whole nations when we talk about people groups but ethnolinguistic groups, people with shared language and shared culture.

What is meant by unreached? Let's define unreached, unengaged and unevangelized:

The Joshua Project defines unreached as "a people group among which there is no indigenous community of believing Christians with adequate numbers and resources to evangelize this people group without outside assistance."2

Unreached people have limited or no access to Christians and are unlikely to hear the gospel without intentional efforts. The term "unreached" emphasizes the lack of access to the gospel rather than the individuals' personal response to it.

An unengaged people group is also unreached, but there is no active church planting going on in the area. According to the Joshua Project, a group becomes engaged when committed, long-term church planting work is done within the local language and culture.2

Unless someone decides to cross geographical, linguistic and cultural boundaries, unengaged people groups will not hear the Gospel.

People from unevangelized people groups, on the other hand, may not have personally heard the Gospel but have had some exposure to the Gospel.3 They may have encountered Christianity through media, conversations, or interactions with Christians, however, they have not yet fully embraced the Gospel with faith and acceptance.

People in unevangelized people groups need to hear the Good News! Thankfully there are many Christians already living in their communities who are able to share.

2. Spiritual Strongholds:

Many countries within the 10/40 Window have deep-rooted religious and spiritual strongholds that resist the message of Christianity. These strongholds can include traditional religions, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and other belief systems that have a long history and significant influence in the region.

3. Population Density and Poverty:

The 10/40 Window has a high population density, with millions of people living in these countries. Additionally, a significant portion of the world's poorest populations resides within this region. The combination of dense populations and poverty creates complex challenges for reaching people with the Gospel and addressing their physical and spiritual needs.


Challenges and Opportunities:

1. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity:

The 10/40 Window is characterized by immense cultural and linguistic diversity. Each country and people group within this region has its own distinct customs, languages, and traditions. This diversity offers both challenges and opportunities for effective cross-cultural missions, requiring contextualized approaches and language proficiency.

2. Hostility and Persecution:

Many countries in the 10/40 Window have laws or social norms that restrict or oppose the practice of Christianity. Christians may face persecution, discrimination, and even the risk of imprisonment or violence. Such challenging environments demand resilience, wisdom, and discernment in carrying out mission work.

3. Spiritual Hunger and Openness:

Despite the challenges, the 10/40 Window also holds immense potential for the spread of the Gospel. Many people within this region are spiritually hungry and searching for meaning and truth. As access to information and technology increases, more individuals are becoming open to exploring different beliefs and ideologies, creating opportunities for sharing the hope found in Christ.


The 10/40 Window represents a critical mission field that demands our attention and strategic efforts. It's a region filled with challenges, but also abundant opportunities to spread the life-changing message of the Gospel to those who have never had the chance to hear it. As we grasp the importance of the 10/40 Window, let's make a commitment to pray, support, and actively participate in outreaches to reach the unreached, make a lasting impact, and transform communities in this crucial area!


People all over the world are waiting to hear about Jesus!

You can make an impact. Your willingness to step out, to leave your comfort zone, and embrace the unknown makes room for Jesus to bring incredible transformation.

We can help you begin that journey.



1 Jesus Film Project. (2019). What is the 10/40 Window? Retrieved from https://www.jesusfilm.org/blog/10-40-window/ 

2 Joshua Project. (n.d.). Definitions. Retrieved from https://joshuaproject.net/help/definitions 

3 The Traveling Team. (n.d.). Unevangelized or Unreached: Why the Difference Matters. Retrieved from https://www.thetravelingteam.org/articles/unevangelized-or-unreached-why-the-difference-matters 

The Current State of Christian World Missions in 2023

The Current State of Christian World Missions in 2023

How does missions look in 2023? Christianity is Growing across the Globe Christianity isn't a dying faith - it's growing all over the world! In...

Read More
How to Pray for the Maldives

How to Pray for the Maldives

The Maldives are a chain of islands in the Indian Ocean (near Sri Lanka and India) and the smallest country in Asia. If you asked someone about the...

Read More
How to Pray for Cambodia

How to Pray for Cambodia

Cambodia is a kingdom in East Asia full of beautiful scenery, delicious food, and cheerful Khmer people. If you’re like me and thought of Disney...

Read More